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[情報] Rest of World-TSMC在美國沙漠中的困境

最新2024-04-27 00:39:00
推噓178 ( 19315237 )
TSMC’s debacle in the American desert TSMC 在美國沙漠中的困境 Missed deadlines and tension among Taiwanese and American coworkers are plaguing the chip giant’s Phoenix expansion. 錯過期限以及台灣和美國同事間的緊張局勢 正在困擾晶片巨頭在鳳凰城擴建計畫 By VIOLA ZHOU 23 APRIL 2024‧PHOENIX, UNITED STATES Bruce thought he’d landed his dream job. The young American engineer had been eager for a stable, high-paying job in the semiconductor industry. Then, in late 2020, he received a LinkedIn message from a recruiter for Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company. Bruce read up on TSMC — the leading global manufacturer of advanced chips — and got excited. The job sounded like he’d be “pushing the boundaries of human technology,” he recalled to Rest of World. TSMC was undergoing a transformation at just about the same time Bruce heard from the recruiter. The coronavirus pandemic was exposing deep faults in supply chains, and a global chip shortage had slowed production of cars, smartphones, and refrigerators around the world. Meanwhile, American policymakers were rallying around what would eventually become the CHIPS and Science Act, a sweeping piece of legislation designed to boost semiconductor manufacturing in the U.S. TSMC, which makes most of its chips in Taiwan, was under pressure to expand its global manufacturing capacities. Bruce認為他找到了理想的工作。這位年輕的美國工程師渴望在半導體行業找到一份穩定 、高薪的工作。然後,在2020年底,他收到了台灣積體電路製造股份有限公司(TSMC)的 一封LinkedIn訊息Bruce瞭解了TSMC——這家全球領先的先進晶片製造商——感到興奮 。他對Rest of World回憶說,這份工作聽起來就像是他將要「突破人類技術的界限」。 就在Bruce收到招聘信息的時候,TSMC正在進行轉型。新冠疫情暴露了供應鏈中的深層次 問題,全球晶片短缺減緩汽車、智慧手機和冰箱的生產速度。與此同時,美國政策制定者 正團結支持最終將成為晶片和科學法案的倡議,這是一項旨在促進美國半導體製造的全 面立法。TSMC主要在台灣生產大多數晶片,因此承受著擴大全球製造能力的壓力。 Bruce would be working as a semiconductor engineer. The recruiter explained that he would first spend more than a year in Taiwan learning the ins and outs of the complex chipmaking process. Then, he’d return to Arizona. There, in a cactus-dotted suburb of Phoenix, TSMC was building a sprawling new factory to make the kind of chips that power iPhones and U.S. fighter jets. He’d be helping bring America’s newest chip factory online. Bruce was in. But over the next two years, Bruce came to realize that the reality of working at TSMC wasn’t exactly what he had envisioned. While working on nanometer- level processes to make state-of-the-art chips, he struggled with language barriers, long hours, and a strict hierarchy. Bruce soon began second-guessing what he had signed up for. The plant, which was originally set to begin operating in 2024, fell woefully behind schedule; production at the facility is now set to start in 2025. Bruce, who said he signed a confidentiality agreement with TSMC, requested anonymity for this story. He wasn’t the only one disappointed with TSMC’s progress in Arizona — other U.S. workers who spoke to Rest of World echoed Bruce’s concerns. In the past two years, the company has relocated hundreds of Taiwanese workers and their families to Arizona. Instead of a gleaming new facility, these workers found an active construction site, and a company struggling to bridge Taiwanese and American professional and cultural norms. Bruce 將成為一名半導體工程師。招聘人員解釋說,他將首先在台灣度過一年多的時間, 學習複雜的晶片製造過程的各方面。然後,他將返回亞利桑那州。在那裡,位於鳳凰城 附近的一個仙人掌遍布的郊區,TSMC正在建造一個廣闊的新工廠,生產著iPhone和美國 戰鬥機所使用的那種晶片。他將協助啟動美國最新的晶片工廠。Bruce 表示願意參與。 但在接下來的兩年裡,Bruce 開始意識到,在TSMC工作的現實並不完全符合他的想像。在 從事奈米級工藝製造最先進的晶片時,他遇到了語言障礙、長時間工作和嚴格的階級制度 。Bruce 很快開始對自己所參與的工作產生了懷疑。該工廠原定於2024年開始運營,但進 度落後嚴重;工廠現在預計於2025年開始生產。Bruce 表示,他與TSMC簽署了保密協議, 要求匿名報導此事。 他不是唯一對TSMC在亞利桑那州的進展感到失望的人——與Bruce交談的其他美國工人也 對此表示了擔憂。在過去的兩年裡,該公司已經將數百名台灣工人及其家屬搬遷到亞利桑 那州。這些工人發現的不是座閃亮的新工廠,而是發現了一個正在建設中的工地,以及一 家在努力協調台灣和美國的專業和文化規範的公司。 Over the past four months, Rest of World spoke with more than 20 current and former TSMC employees — from the U.S. and Taiwan — at the Arizona plant. All of them requested anonymity because they were not authorized to speak to the media or because they feared retaliation from the company. In February, Rest of World traveled to Phoenix to visit the growing TSMC complex and spend time with the nascent community of transplanted Taiwanese engineers. The American engineers complained of rigid, counterproductive hierarchies at the company; Taiwanese TSMC veterans described their American counterparts as lacking the kind of dedication and obedience they believe to be the foundation of their company’s world-leading success. Some 2,200 employees now work at TSMC’s Arizona plant, with about half of them deployed from Taiwan. While tension at the plant simmers, TSMC has been ramping up its investments, recently securing billions of dollars in grants and loans from the U.S. government. Whether or not the plant succeeds in making cutting-edge chips with the same speed, efficiency, and profitability as facilities in Asia remains to be seen, with many skeptical about a U.S. workforce under TSMC’s army-like command system. “[The company] tried to make Arizona Taiwanese,” G. Dan Hutcheson, a semiconductor industry analyst at the research firm TechInsights, told Rest of World. “And it’s just not going to work.” 在過去的四個月裡,《Rest of World》與亞利桑那州工廠的超過20名現任和前任台積電 員工進行了交流,其中包括來自美國和台灣的員工。所有人都要求匿名,因為他們未獲授 權向媒體發言,或者他們擔心公司會對他們進行報復。二月份,Rest of World前往鳳凰 城參觀了不斷擴大的台積電工廠,並與移居至此的台灣工程師社區共度時光。 美國工程師抱怨公司的等級制度僵化、適得其反;台灣台積電的老員工則認為,美國同事 缺乏奉獻精神和服從精神,而他們卻認為,奉獻精神和服從精神是該公司取得全球領先成 功的基礎。 目前,有約2200名員工在台積電的亞利桑那州工廠工作,其中約一半來自台灣。儘管工廠 內部存在緊張局勢,台積電已經加大了對該工廠的投資,最近從美國政府獲得了數十億美 元的補助和貸款。該工廠能否像亞洲工廠一樣以同樣的速度、效率和盈利能力製造尖端晶 片,這還有待觀察,很多人對台積電的軍隊式指揮系統下的美國勞動力持懷疑態度。半導 體行業研究公司TechInsights的行業分析師G. Dan Hutcheson告訴《Rest of World》說 :“(公司)試圖讓亞利桑那州的工廠變成台灣工廠,但這是不可能的。” TSMC’s facilities are located on the outskirts of northern Phoenix, surrounded by miles of desert hills and wide roads. A glass-walled office building sits next to a massive parking lot, with a fountain in the shape of a round silicon wafer just in front of the facility gates. Next to the office building are the incomplete manufacturing facilities. Originally slated to open in 2024, the facilities resemble giant stadiums. Once complete, the entire complex will cover 1,100 acres, or the equivalent of 625 football fields. At lunch hour on a Monday in February, Taiwanese and American engineers walked in and out of the office building with badges, hard hats, and see-through backpacks — which make it easier and faster for workers to pass through security checks. TSMC got its start thousands of miles away from Arizona’s arid desert — on the northern coast of Taiwan. Morris Chang, a U.S.-educated chip engineer who spent 25 years at Texas Instruments, founded the company in 1987. He did so at the invitation of the Taiwanese government, which was eager to boost the island’s economy at the time. In the 1980s, companies like Intel and Texas Instruments designed and made their own chips. TSMC set out to do something different. Chang’s company would focus solely on contract manufacturing: Customers would send designs, and engineers in the company’s fabrication plants (also called “fabs”) worked to perfect production methods, minimize the number of defective chips, and reduce costs. The model proved a success. “All of a sudden it’s really efficient,” Hutcheson, of TechInsights, told Rest of World. “You can learn to become a plumber. But at the end of the day, it’s more efficient for you to focus on what you make money doing and then pay someone else to come do [the plumbing]. ” 台積電的設施位於鳳凰城北部郊區,四周被數英里長的沙漠丘陵和寬闊的道路所環繞。一 座玻璃幕牆的辦公樓坐落在一個巨大的停車場旁邊,設施門口前面有一個圓形矽晶圓造型 的噴泉。 在辦公樓旁邊是尚未完工的製造設施。原計劃於2024年開業,這些設施看起來像是巨型的 體育場。一旦完工,整個綜合體將占地1,100英畝,相當於625個足球場的面積。 在二月的一個星期一的午餐時間,台灣和美國的工程師們穿梭在辦公樓內外,身上帶著證 件、安全帽和透明背包——這讓工人們更容易、更快速地通過安全檢查。 台積電起源於遙遠的亞利桑那州乾旱的沙漠之外——位於台灣北部海岸。張忠謀是一位在 美國接受教育並在德州儀器公司工作了25年的晶片工程師,他於1987年創立這家公司。 當時,台灣政府邀請他創立這家公司,當時急於振興該島的經濟。 在1980年代,英特爾和德州儀器等公司都設計並製造自己的晶片。台積電打算走一條不同 的道路。張忠謀的公司將專注於代工製造:客戶將發送設計,公司的製造工廠(也稱為「 晶圓廠」)的工程師們致力於完善生產方法,減少不合格晶片的數量,並降低成本。 這種模式被證明是成功的。“突然之間變得非常高效,”TechInsights的Hutcheson告訴 Rest of World說,“你可以學會成為一名水管工。但歸根究柢,專注於自己能賺錢的工作 ,然後支付其他人來做(水管工作)是更有效的。” Meanwhile, chip manufacturing collapsed in the U.S. and Europe, and migrated to East Asia, drawn by government incentives. Hutcheson said the high costs of building new facilities prevented new companies from joining the competition and eventually solidified TSMC’s dominance. TSMC has since grown into a $660 billion giant that has allowed “fabless” chip designers such as Nvidia and Apple to flourish. The company is now able to cram more computing power into less space than almost any other chip manufacturer. Samsung and Intel are still trailing behind the Taiwanese company. TSMC is also considered Taiwan’s most important company, with Taiwanese people dubbing it a “divine mountain that guards the nation.” The world’s dependence on TSMC, locals reason, could even incentivize the West to defend Taiwan from a potential invasion from China. The loss of Taiwan and with it TSMC — the thinking goes — would result in a global tech meltdown. TSMC insiders told Rest of World the key to the company’s success is an intense, military-style work environment. Engineers work 12-hour days, and sometimes weekends too. Taiwanese commentators joke that the company runs on engineers with “slave mentalities” who “sell their livers” — local slang that underscores the intensity of the work. Up until the pandemic, it made sense for TSMC to concentrate its operations in Taiwan, where it enjoyed unwavering government support, low operating costs, and access to the island’s top talents. Outside a small plant in Washington and two plants in mainland China that made chips with older technologies, the company had little interest in international expansion. 與此同時,晶片製造在美國和歐洲崩潰,並遷移到東亞,受到政府激勵的吸引。 建造新設施的高成本阻礙了新公司加入競爭,最終鞏固了台積電的主導地位。 從那時起,台積電已發展成一家價值6600億美元的巨頭,使諸如Nvidia和蘋果等「無廠」 晶片設計公司蓬勃發展。該公司現在能夠在比幾乎任何其他晶片製造商都少的空間內塞入 更多的計算能力。三星和英特爾仍然落後於這家台灣公司。 台積電也被認為是台灣最重要的公司,台灣人將其譽為「守護國家的神山」。當地人推斷 ,世界對台積電的依賴甚至可能激勵西方國家保衛台灣免受中國的潛在入侵。人們認為, 失去台灣以及隨之而來的台積電將導致全球科技崩潰。 台積電內部人士告訴《Rest of World》,公司成功的關鍵在於一個強烈的、軍事化風格 的工作環境。工程師每天工作12個小時,有時候甚至要工作週末。台灣評論家開玩笑說, 公司運營在「奴隸心態」的工程師上,他們「賣肝」—這是當地俚語,突顯工作的強度。 直到疫情爆發之前,台積電專注於在台灣集中其業務是有道理的,因為它得到了政府的堅 定支持,營運成本低廉,可以接觸到島上的頂尖人才。除了華盛頓州的一家小工廠和中國 大陸的兩家使用較老技術製造晶片的工廠外,該公司對國際擴張並不感興趣。 "The world has changed." That changed in the late 2010s, as governments came to realize the geopolitical importance of the semiconductor industry and launched a race to attract chip manufacturing giants. Around 2019, the Trump administration started courting TSMC to build a larger and more advanced plant in the U.S. The pandemic further underscored supply-chain weak points. “The world has changed,” Sujai Shivakumar, director of the Renewing American Innovation Project at the think tank Center for Strategic and International Studies, told Rest of World. Depending on chips from a faraway country on China’s doorstep suddenly felt precarious. “What was purely — from an economics point of view — an efficient solution is no longer an efficient solution because of the geopolitics,” Shivakumar said. In May 2020, then U.S. Under-Secretary of State Keith Krach announced that TSMC had agreed to open a $12 billion facility in Arizona. The site would create thousands of jobs, spur cutting-edge research, and attract more companies on the semiconductor supply chain to move to the U.S. Chips coming out of the plant were expected to power smartphones, 5G base stations, and advanced F-35 fighter jets. “This means that chips critical to our lives and national security will once again be made in America,” Krach said. TSMC’s investment, Krach later told U.S. media, inspired policymakers to extend incentives to the entire chip industry. In the summer of 2022, the Biden administration passed the CHIPS Act, which designated $53 billion to developing the domestic semiconductor industry. Later that year, TSMC said it would build a second fab at the same site in Phoenix, increasing its total investment to $40 billion. Despite the commitment from both TSMC and Washington, issues related to exporting a Taiwanese-style work culture to the U.S. swirled from the outset. Morris Chang, who retired in 2018 but remains the public face of the company and the godfather of Taiwan’s semiconductor industry, cast doubts on the Phoenix initiative. 這一切在2010年代末發生了變化,因為各國政府開始意識到半導體行業的地緣政治重要性 ,並展開了吸引晶片製造業巨頭的競爭。大約在2019年,川普政府開始拉攏台積電,在 美國建立一家更大、更先進的工廠。疫情進一步凸顯了供應鏈的脆弱點。戰略與國際研究 中心的《Renewing American Innovation Project》主任蘇賈伊·希瓦庫馬爾告訴 《Rest of World》說:“世界已經改變了。”依賴遠在中國門口的一個國家生產的晶片 感到很不穩定。“純粹從經濟角度來看,這是一個有效的解決方案,但由於地緣政治的 原因,它不再是一個有效的解決方案,”希瓦庫馬爾說。 2020年5月,當時的美國副國務卿基斯·克拉赫宣布,台積電已同意在亞利桑那州建立一 家價值120億美元的工廠。該地點將創造成千上萬個就業機會,推動尖端研究,並吸引更 多的半導體供應鏈公司遷至美國。這家工廠生產的晶片預計將用於智慧手機、5G基站和先 進的F-35戰鬥機。“這意味著對我們的生活和國家安全至關重要的晶片將再次在美國製造 ”克拉赫表示。 克拉赫後來告訴美國媒體,台積電的投資激勵了政策制定者向整個晶片行業提供激勵措施 。2022年夏季,拜登政府通過了CHIPS法案,將530億美元指定用於發展國內半導體行業。 同年晚些時候,台積電表示將在鳳凰城同一地點建造第二座晶圓廠,將其總投資增加到 400億美元。 儘管台積電和華盛頓都做出了承諾,但從一開始就存在將台灣式工作文化輸出到美國的問 題。張忠謀於2018年退休,但仍然是公司的公共面孔和台灣半導體行業的始祖,對鳳凰城 計劃表示懷疑。 When Nancy Pelosi visited Taiwan in 2022, Chang lectured the House speaker on the challenges the U.S. would face in mastering the microscopic precision required in chip production. Chang has since also warned against the lack of manufacturing talent in the U.S., and how hard it would be for Taiwanese managers to supervise Americans. Speaking to the Vying for Talent podcast in April 2022, Chang concluded that the U.S.’ attempt to onshore semiconductor manufacturing would be “a very expensive exercise in futility.” In 2021, as construction kicked off in Arizona, TSMC flew Bruce and about 600 American new hires to the southern Taiwanese coastal city of Tainan. There, they’d spend more than a year training at Fab 18, TSMC’s most advanced mass production plant. 當佩洛西在2022年訪問台灣時,張忠謀對眾議院議長講解了美國在掌握晶片生產所需的 微觀精確度方面面臨的挑戰。張忠謀還警告說,美國缺乏製造人才,而且台灣經理監督 美國人將會很困難。張忠謀在2022年4月接受《Vying for Talent》播客訪談時總結說, 美國試圖在本土生產半導體將是“一場非常昂貴的徒勞行為。 Upon arriving at the facility, Bruce handed in his smartphone and passed through metal detectors. He was in awe of the semiconductor production line: Overhead rails carried wafers from one station to another while workers in white protective suits kept the machinery running. “It really just felt like I was touring some kind of living thing that was greater than humans; that was bigger than us,” Bruce recalled. But the challenges were immediately apparent, too. At Fab 18, nearly all communication took place in Taiwanese and Mandarin Chinese, the two most widely spoken languages in Taiwan. The Americans found it difficult to understand meetings, production guidelines, and chatter among local engineers. In theory, every American was supposed to have a Taiwanese buddy — a future Arizona worker who would help them navigate the workplace. But the Americans said their buddies were often too busy to help with translations, or else not familiar enough with the technical processes because they were freshly transferred from other production lines. Many trainees, including Bruce, relied on Google Translate to get through the day, with mixed results. Technical terms and images were hard to decipher. One American engineer said that because staff were not allowed to upload work materials to Google, he tried to translate documents by copying Chinese text into a handwriting recognition program. It didn’t work very well. One former American TSMC engineer who trained in Taiwan said his manager instructed him to follow along with daily handover meetings, which were conducted in Mandarin, just by looking at the associated PowerPoint presentations. “I was mind-blown at his expectations,” he told Rest of World . “I love challenges and pushing myself, but this was lunatic-level leadership.” 在2021年,隨著亞利桑那州的建設開始,台積電將Bruce 和約600名美國新員工送到了台 灣南部沿海城市台南。在那裡,他們將在台積電最先進的大規模生產廠Fab 18進行超過一 年的培訓。 抵達該設施後,Bruce交出了智慧手機,通過了金屬探測器。他對半導體生產線感到驚嘆 :頭頂的軌道將晶圓從一個工作站運送到另一個工作站,而穿著白色防護服的工人們保持 著機器運轉。Bruce回憶道:“它真的感覺就像我在參觀某種超越人類的生命體,比我們 更偉大。” 但挑戰也立即顯現出來。在Fab 18,幾乎所有的溝通都是用台語和中文進行的,這是台灣 最廣泛使用的兩種語言。美國人發現很難理解會議、生產指南以及當地工程師之間的交談 。理論上,每個美國人都應該有一個台灣夥伴,即一個未來在亞利桑那州工作的人,他 們將幫助他們在工作場所中導航。但美國人表示,他們的夥伴通常太忙,無法幫助翻譯, 或者對技術流程不夠熟悉,因為他們剛從其他生產線調職過來包括Bruce在內的許多培訓生依靠Google翻譯應付每一天的工作,效果參差不齊。技術術 語和圖像很難解讀。一位美國工程師說,由於工作人員不允許將工作材料上傳到Google, 他試圖通過將中文文本複製到手寫識別程序中來翻譯文件。這並不是很成功。 一位曾在台灣接受培訓的美國台積電工程師表示,他的經理要求他只需查看相關的 PowerPoint演示文稿就可以參加每日的交接會議,這些會議都是用中文進行的。他告訴 《Rest of World》說:“我對他的期望感到震驚。” “我喜歡挑戰和自我激勵,但這真的是瘋狂的領導方式。” TSMC’s work culture is notoriously rigorous, even by Taiwanese standards. Former executives have hailed the Confucian culture, which promotes diligence and respect for authority, as well as Taiwan’s strict work ethic as key to the company’s success. Chang, speaking last year about Taiwan’s competitiveness compared to the U.S., said that “if [a machine] breaks down at one in the morning, in the U.S. it will be fixed in the next morning. But in Taiwan, it will be fixed at 2 a.m.” And, he added, the wife of a Taiwanese engineer would “go back to sleep without saying another word.” During their visit, the Americans got a taste of the company’s intense work culture. To avoid intellectual property leaks, staff were banned from using personal devices inside the factory. Instead, they were given company phones, dubbed “T phones,” that couldn’t be connected to most messaging apps or social media. In one department, managers sometimes applied what they called “stress tests” by announcing assignments due the same day or week, to make sure the Americans were able to meet tight deadlines and sacrifice personal time like Taiwanese workers, two engineers told Rest of World. Managers shamed American workers in front of their peers, sometimes by suggesting they quit engineering, one employee said. TSMC made attempts to bridge some of the cultural differences. After the American trainees asked to contact families and to listen to music at work, TSMC loosened the firewall on T phones to allow all staff access to Instagram, YouTube, and Spotify. Some Taiwanese workers attended a class on U.S. culture , where they learned that Americans responded better to encouragement rather than criticism, according to an engineer who attended the session. But both American and Taiwanese engineers said that the training for new hires was largely insufficient. Managers excluded Americans from higher-level meetings conducted in Mandarin, according to one ex-TSMC engineer. Some of the Americans said that they rarely had a chance to handle problems themselves, and were mostly tasked with observing. “It’s like math in school,” Bruce said. “You can watch your teacher do 500 practice problems on the chalkboard, but if you don’t do some problems on your own, you are going to fail the test.” 台積電的工作文化以其嚴苛聞名,即使按照台灣的標準來看也是如此。前高管們讚揚儒家 文化,這種文化推崇勤奮和尊重權威,以及台灣嚴格的職業道德,這些都是公司成功的關 鍵所在。張先生去年談到台灣與美國的競爭力時表示:“如果(機器)在凌晨一點壞了, 在美國,第二天早上就會修好但在台灣,這將在凌晨兩點修好。”他還補充說,台灣工 程師的妻子“會一言不發回去睡覺”。 在訪問期間,美國人深刻體驗到了公司的強烈工作文化。為了避免知識產權外泄,工作人 員被禁止在工廠內使用個人設備。相反,他們被配發了公司手機,被稱為“T phone”, 這些手機無法連接到大多數消息應用程序或社交媒體。根據兩位工程師告訴《Rest of World》的說法,在某個部門,管理人員有時會宣布當天或當周要完成的任務,以確保美 國人能夠滿足緊迫的截止期限,並像台灣工人一樣犧牲個人時間,他們稱之為“壓力測試 ”。一名員工表示,管理人員有時會在同行面前責怪美國工人,有時甚至建議他們辭去工 工作。 台積電曾試圖彌合一些文化差異。在美國培訓生要求與家人聯繫並在工作中聽音樂後,台 積電放寬了T phone上的防火墻,允許所有員工訪問Instagram、YouTube和Spotify。根據 一位參加過這個會議的工程師的說法,一些台灣工人參加了一個有關美國文化的課程,他 們在課程中了解到,美國人對鼓勵的反應比批評更好。 但是美國和台灣工程師都表示,新員工的培訓大多是不足的。一位前台積電工程師表示, 管理人員在中文進行的高級會議中排除了美國人。一些美國人表示,他們很少有機會自 己解決問題,大多數任務都是觀察。Bruce說:“這就像在學校學數學一樣。你可以看你 的老師在黑板上做500道練習題,但如果你自己不做一些題目,你就會考試不及格。” As training went on, tensions mounted. U.S. engineers told Rest of World that some Taiwanese male engineers had calendars with bikini models on their desks and occasionally shared sexual memes in group chats. A female American colleague, according to an American trainee who witnessed the conversation, asked a Taiwanese engineer to remove his computer wallpaper depicting a bikini model. One former American engineer said some local co-workers referred to him as a “white breeding pig,” implying he was only in Taiwan to sleep with local women. At a meeting, a manager said Americans were less desirable than Taiwanese and Indian workers, according to people who saw leaked notes, which circulated among trainees. “They really are trying to push this narrative that Americans are slower because of lower technical ability, but I really don’t believe that’s the truth,” an American engineer who recently left TSMC told Rest of World. “The Taiwanese create this false sense of urgency with every single task, and they really push ‘you need to finish everything immediately.’ But it’s just not realistic for people that want to have some normal work-life balance.” Several former American employees said they were not against working longer hours, but only if the tasks were meaningful. “I’d ask my manager ‘What’s your top priority,’ he’d always say ‘Everything is a priority,’” said another ex-TSMC engineer. “So, so, so, many times I would work overtime getting stuff done only to find out it wasn’t needed.” 隨著培訓的進行,緊張局勢不斷升級。美國工程師告訴《Rest of World》一些台灣男性 工程師的辦公桌上有比基尼模特的日曆,偶爾在群聊中分享性愛迷因。據一位見證了對話 的美國培訓生表示,一位女性美國同事要求一名台灣工程師更換他電腦桌布,因為桌布上 是一位比基尼模特。一位前台積電工程師表示,一些當地同事稱他為“白人種豬”,暗示 他來台灣只是為了與當地女性發生關係。據見過外洩筆記的人士透露,有一位經理在會議 上表示,美國人比台灣和印度工人不受歡迎。 一位最近離開台積電的美國工程師告訴《Rest of World》說:“他們真的在試圖推動這 樣一個觀點,即美國人由於技術能力較低而更慢,但我真的不相信這是事實。”“台灣人 總是對每一個任務都創造一種虛假的緊迫感,他們真的強調‘你需要立即完成所有事情’ 。但對於那些想要一些正常工作與生活平衡的人來說,這並不現實。” 幾位前美國員工表示,他們不反對加班,但前提是任務有意義。“我問我的經理‘你的首 要任務是什麼’,他總是說‘一切都是首要任務’,”另一位前台積電工程師說。“所以 ,很多時候我會加班做完事情,結果發現其實並不需要。” Training in Taiwan, which typically lasted one to two years, wasn’t all miserable, the Americans said. On the weekends, the trainees traveled across the island, marveling at the country’s highly efficient public transport network. Bruce spent his weekends hiking and frequenting nightclubs. He chatted with the families that run night-market food stalls, and entertained strangers who requested selfies with foreigners. Still, at least dozens of trainees quit before the end of training, according to the American employees. TSMC announced a recurring retention bonus in 2022. The remaining American workers began speculating that the company only hired them to secure CHIPS Act funding, Bruce said. But he stayed on: He wanted to see TSMC come to life in Arizona. In late 2022, the employees began migrating from humid southern Taiwan to the desert of northern Phoenix. The group included the Americans, as well as hundreds of Taiwanese employees who would help install tools, manage suppliers , and prepare the Arizona plant for mass production. For the Taiwanese, many of whom planned for extended stays in Phoenix, that meant relocating entire families — toddlers and dogs included — to a foreign country. Many regarded it as a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to explore the world, practice English, and send their children to American schools. Younger families planned pregnancies so they could give birth to American citizens. “ If we are going to have children, of course we will have them here,” a Taiwanese engineer told Rest of World. “As an American citizen, they will have more options than others.” To cover the high living costs, TSMC provided the Taiwanese workers with stipend for cars and housing. Some families moved into apartment complexes reserved for employees, dubbed “TSMC villages.” Local schools introduced Mandarin visual aids in classrooms for Taiwanese pupils. A Chinese Baptist church in Phoenix organized English-language classes, taught by earlier generations of Taiwanese immigrants, to help the newcomers settle in. 在台灣的培訓,通常持續一到兩年,並不全是令人悲慘的。美國培訓生表示,在週末,他 們穿梭於島嶼各地,對該國高效的公共交通網絡感到驚嘆。Bruce在週末喜歡去遠足和夜 店。他與經營夜市攤位的家庭聊天,並且樂於接受要求與外國人自拍的陌生人。 儘管如此,根據美國員工的說法,至少有幾十名培訓生在培訓結束前就已經離職。台積電 於2022年宣布了一項固定的留職獎金。Bruce表示,其餘的美國員工開始猜測公司僅僅是 為了確保《CHIPS法案》的資金才聘請了他們。但他堅持留下來:他想要看到台積電在亞 利桑那州開始運作。 到了2022年底,員工們從潮濕的台灣南部遷移到了乾旱的鳳凰城北部沙漠地區。這個團隊 包括了美國人,以及數百名台灣員工,他們將協助安裝設備、管理供應商,並為亞利桑那 工廠的大規模生產做準備。 對於許多計劃在鳳凰城長期居住的台灣人來說,這意味著將整個家庭——包括幼兒和狗— —搬到一個外國國家。許多人將其視為探索世界、練習英語並將子女送入美國學校的一次 千載難逢的機會。年輕的家庭計劃在這裡生孩子,這樣他們就可以生下美國公民。“如果 我們要生孩子,當然會在這裡生,”一位台灣工程師告訴《Rest of World》。“作為美 國公民,他們將擁有比其他人更多的選擇。” 為了應對高昂的生活成本,台積電為台灣員工提供了汽車和住房的津貼。一些家庭搬進了 為員工保留的公寓大樓,被稱為“台積村”。當地學校在課堂上引入了中文視覺輔助工具 ,以幫助台灣學生。鳳凰城的一間華人浸信會教會組織了英語課程,由先前的一代台灣移 民教授,以幫助新來者安頓下來。 Many experienced a culture shock. The bustling cities of Taiwan are densely packed and offer extensive public transport, ubiquitous street food, and 24- hour convenience stores every few blocks. In northern Phoenix, everyday life is impossible without a car, and East Asian faces are scarce. “Everything is so big in America,” said one engineer, recalling his first impression. He recounted his wife summarizing her impression of the U.S.: “Great mountains, great rivers, and great boredom.” The Taiwanese engineers brought with them the intense TSMC work culture. Having spent years under the company’s grueling management, they were used to long days, out-of-hours calls, and harsh treatment from their managers. In Taiwan, the pay and prestige were worth it, they told Rest of World — despite the challenges, many felt proud working for the island’s most prominent firm . It was the best job they could hope for. But the American workers didn’t have the same sense of loyalty. In the U.S., engineers had a plethora of job options that provided competitive pay and abundant personal time. The Taiwanese workers described their Phoenix colleagues as arrogant, carefree, and more willing to challenge orders. “It’ s hard to get them to do things,” a Taiwanese engineer in Phoenix told Rest of World. Bruce said that working conditions didn’t improve for the Americans once they relocated to Arizona. The American workers did not get more say in how the company was run, and they found the obsequiousness of their Taiwanese colleagues irritating. TSMC workers were asked to draw up reports and keep other documents in a PowerPoint format so that they could regularly make presentations to upper management. The Taiwanese employees were used to it, while the Americans became impatient with typing up weekly work reports. The Americans also resented that Taiwanese colleagues stayed late at the office for no good reason. “That pisses me off,” Bruce said. “They were just doing it for show.” 許多人經歷了文化衝擊。台灣繁華的城市密集擁擠,提供廣泛的公共交通、無處不在的街 頭小吃和每幾個街區就有24小時便利店。在鳳凰城北部,如果沒有汽車,日常生活是不可 能的,東亞人面孔也很少見到。“在美國,一切都是如此巨大,”一位工程師回憶起他的 第一印象時說。他講述了他妻子對美國的印象的總結:“偉大的山脈,偉大的河流,和極 大的無聊。” 台灣工程師帶來了激烈的台積電工作文化。在公司的嚴格管理下度過了多年,他們已經習 慣了長時間的工作、非工作時間的電話以及來自主管的嚴厲對待。他們告訴《Rest of World》,在台灣,薪水和聲望是值得的——儘管面臨著挑戰,許多人為能在該島上最知 名的公司工作感到自豪。這是他們所能期望的最好的工作。 但美國員工並沒有同樣的忠誠感。在美國,工程師有很多提供競爭性薪水和豐富個人時間 的工作選擇。台灣工人描述了他們在鳳凰城的同事為傲慢、無憂無慮,更願意挑戰命令。 “讓他們做事很難,”一位在鳳凰城的台灣工程師告訴《Rest of World》。 Bruce說,一旦美國工人搬到亞利桑那州後,工作條件並沒有改善。美國工人並沒有更多 發言權來參與公司的管理,他們發現台灣同事的阿諛奉承令人不快。台積電員工被要求起 草報告,並將其他文件以PowerPoint格式保存,以便他們定期向高級管理層進行演示。台 灣員工已經習慣了這一點,而美國人則對每週填寫工作報告感到不耐煩。美國人還對台灣 同事無故加班感到不滿。“這讓我很惱火,”Bruce說。“他們只是為了表現而已。” Five former employees from the U.S. told Rest of World that TSMC engineers sometimes falsified or cherry-picked data for customers and managers. Sometimes, the engineers said, staff would manipulate data from testing tools or wafers to please managers who had seemingly impossible expectations. Other times, one engineer said, “because the workers were spread so thin, anything they could do to get work off their plate they would do.” Four American employees described TSMC culture as “save face”: Workers would strive to make a team, a department, or the company look good at the expense of efficiency and employee wellbeing. In mid-2023, TSMC announced delays in the construction of its first facility in Arizona, dubbed Fab 21 — production at the facility would start in 2025 instead of 2024 as planned. TSMC blamed a shortage of skilled workers. Construction unions, however, complained of safety hazards and questioned if TSMC was using this as an excuse to bring in cheap labor from Taiwan. Engineers who were supposed to run production lines were reassigned to work remotely for Fab 18 back in Tainan, and asked to join late-night meetings. Some Americans and Taiwanese engineers were reassigned to help speed up the building of the facility, and asked to oversee construction workers. Clad in their clean-room suits and hard hats, engineers would sometimes collect trash at the unfinished sites. One ex-employee recalled colleagues collecting bottles of urine left by construction crews. 五名來自美國的前員工告訴《Rest of World》,台積電工程師有時會為客戶和管理人員 偽造或挑選數據。工程師們說,有時,工作人員會操縱測試工具或晶圓的數據,以取悅那 些似乎不切實際的期望的經理。其他時候,一位工程師說,“因為工人們分工太細,他們 會做任何能減輕工作負擔的事情。”四名美國員工將台積電的文化描述為“挽回面子”: 工人們會努力讓團隊、部門或公司看起來不錯,卻牺牲了效率和員工福祉。 2023 年中期,台積電宣布了位於亞利桑那州的首個設施 Fab 21 的建設延宕,該設施的 生產將從原定的 2024 年推遲到 2025 年開始。台積電指責技術工人短缺。然而,建築工 會抱怨存在安全隱患,質疑台積電是否在以此作為藉口引進來自台灣的廉價勞動力。 原本應該負責生產線的工程師被重新分配到台南的 Fab 18 遠程工作,並被要求參加深夜 會議。一些美國和台灣工程師被重新分配以加快設施的建設速度,並被要求監督建築工人 。身穿清潔室服和安全帽的工程師有時會在未完成的工地收集垃圾。一位前員工回憶起同 事們收集建築工作人員留下的尿液瓶子的情景。 Just like in Taiwan, language barriers contributed to tension in Phoenix. Bruce said his department manager, who had come from Taiwan, spoke poor English. So instead of communicating with Bruce directly, he’d channel feedback or instructions through a Taiwanese colleague. One U.S. engineer said managers trusted Taiwanese workers with important tasks, starving the Americans of hands-on experience. One ex-employee later joked that the biggest skill he learned at TSMC was making PowerPoint slides. Disgruntled Americans flocked to post complaints to workplace review website Glassdoor, reporting long hours, high stress, unrealistic deadlines, and “ Asian culture.” TSMC currently has a rating of 3.2 out of 5 stars on the site . American chipmakers Intel and Texas Instruments, by comparison, have a 4.1 rating. The poor Glassdoor rating made it more difficult for TSMC to hire experienced American workers, a former TSMC manager told Rest of World. Another former employee said he convinced six engineer friends to turn down offers from TSMC. The company made further attempts to adapt to American work culture. In early 2023, TSMC held weekly English-language and cultural classes for Taiwanese managers. A former TSMC staffer who worked on the education program said managers were instructed not to yell at employees in public, or threaten to fire them without consulting human resources. “They would say, ‘Okay, okay, I get it. I’m not going to do that,’” the employee recalled to Rest of World. “But I think in the heat of the moment, they forgot, and they did do it.” 就像在台灣一樣,語言障礙也加劇了鳳凰城的緊張氛圍。Bruce 表示,他們部門的經理來 自台灣,英文不好。因此,他不是直接與Bruce 溝通,而是通過一位台灣同事傳達反饋或 指示。一位美國工程師表示,經理信任台灣工人執行重要任務,使美國人無法獲得實踐經 驗。一位前員工後來開玩笑說,他在台積電學到的最重要的技能是製作 PowerPoint不滿的美國員工紛紛在工作評論網站 Glassdoor 上發帖投訴,報告長時間工作、高壓、 不切實際的截止日期和“亞洲文化”。目前,台積電在該網站上的評分為 3.2(滿分 5) 。相比之下,美國晶片製造商英特爾和德州儀器的評分為 4.1。一位前台積電經理告訴 《Rest of World》,這種差評使得台積電更難以聘請經驗豐富的美國工人。 另一位前員工表示,他說服了六位工程師朋友拒絕了台積電的工作邀請。 公司進一步試圖適應美國的工作文化。 2023 年初,台積電為台灣經理舉辦了每周一次的 英語和文化課程。一位曾參與該教育計劃的前台積電職員表示,經理們被告知不要在公共 場合大聲呼喊員工,也不要在沒有諮詢人力資源部門的情況下威脅解雇他們。“他們會說 ,‘好的,好的,我知道了。我不會這樣做的,’”這名員工對《Rest of World》回憶 道。“但我認為在一時激動下,他們忘記了,他們確實這樣做了。” Taiwanese managers were reminded not to ask employees why they were taking sick leave, or ask female job applicants about their plans to have children — an illegal yet common question in Taiwan. An ex-TSMC engineer said the company once sent an email reminding staff that the commonly used Mandarin term “nei ge” — which means “that” — could sound like the N-word. In December 2023, following months of negotiations, TSMC made a deal with Arizona construction labor unions, agreeing to develop a workforce training program, maintain transparency on site safety, and focus on hiring locally. Meanwhile, some American engineers started seeking out opportunities at companies with less strenuous expectations and better career prospects. Workers started joking that joining TSMC was a stepping stone to Intel, which was also expanding in Arizona at the time. An engineer, who has worked at both Intel and TSMC, said Taiwanese colleagues had also asked him about vacancies at Intel, where they expected a better work-and-life balance. Several American former employees said they felt relief after quitting. In group chats, engineers celebrated the departure of their friends. “TSMC was the worst possible place to work on Earth,” one American ex-TSMC engineer told Rest of World. Another, who recently left the company, described TSMC as having “a purely authoritarian work structure.” 台灣經理們被提醒不要詢問員工為什麼請病假,或者問女性求職者有關生育計劃的問題 — 在台灣這是一個非法但普遍存在的問題。一位前台積電工程師表示,該公司曾發送電 子郵件提醒員工,普遍使用的中文詞語“那個”可能聽起來像是 N 字詞。 在經過數月的談判後,2023 年 12 月,台積電與亞利桑那州建築勞工工會達成協議,同 意制定工作人員培訓計劃,保持工地安全的透明度,並專注於本地招聘。 與此同時,一些美國工程師開始尋找在期望較輕鬆的工作要求和更好的職業前景的公司的 機會。工人們開始開玩笑說,加入台積電是進入英特爾的一個跳板,當時英特爾也在亞利 桑那州擴建。一位在英特爾和台積電都工作過的工程師表示,台灣同事也問及他在英特爾 的職位空缺,他們期望在那裡有更好的工作和生活平衡幾位美國前員工表示,辭職後感到寬慰。在群聊中,工程師們慶祝了朋友的離開。“在地 球上工作最糟糕的地方就是台積電了”一位美國前台積電工程師告訴《Rest of World》 。另一位最近離職的工程師將台積電描述為具有“純粹的專制結構”。 Bruce resigned in 2023. He is still friends with his Taiwanese former colleagues, and kept his TSMC badge, water bottle, and TSMC T-shirt as mementos. He said he felt triumphant walking out. The American workers had voiced their concerns in meetings with management, but he didn’t see changes happening. “All of us gave them every chance to listen, but they never did,” he told Rest of World. Three years after construction began, the first planned Phoenix plant is still incomplete. During an earnings call in April, TSMC chief executive C.C. Wei said the facility had entered “engineering wafer production,” meaning it’s making prototype wafers to prepare for commercial operation next year. In January, TSMC announced further delays at its second facility, too. Originally set to begin operations in 2026, it won’t open until 2027 or 2028. Chang-Tai Hsieh, an economics professor at the University of Chicago, told Rest of World that TSMC had found the U.S. a challenging environment to operate in because of the complicated regulatory process, strong construction unions, and a workforce less used to the long hours that are commonplace at TSMC in Taiwan. “TSMC’s profits from their U.S. fabs will be lower, unless their clients are willing to pay more to source from the U.S. fabs,” Hsieh said. “The only thing they need Phoenix for is to make sure that the U.S. government doesn’t turn against them.” In 2023, TSMC made more than 65% of its revenue from customers in the U.S. In the April earnings call, chief executive Wei said customers needed to share the high costs of producing outside Taiwan. Bruce在 2023 年辭職。他仍然和台灣的前同事保持著友誼保留了他的台積電工作證、 水壺和台積電 T 恤作為紀念品。他說,走出公司時感到很得意。美國工人在與管理層的 會議中表達了他們的擔憂,但他沒有看到任何變化的發生。“我們所有人都給了他們傾聽 的機會,但他們從來沒有,”他告訴《Rest of World》。 建設開始三年後,首座計劃中的鳳凰城工廠仍然尚未完工。在 4 月的一次電話會議上, 台積電執行長魏哲家表示,該工廠已進入“工程晶圓生產”階段,這意味著正在製造 原型晶圓,以準備明年投入商業運營。今年 1 月,台積電宣布第二工廠的進一步延遲。 原計劃於 2026 年開始運營,但直到 2027 年或 2028 年才會開放。 芝加哥大學的經濟學教授謝常泰告訴《Rest of World》,台積電發現美國是一個具有挑 戰性的經營環境,原因是複雜的監管程序、強大的建築工會,以及一個對長時間工作不太 習慣的勞動力,這在台灣的台積電是司空見慣的。“除非客戶願意支付更高的價格從美國 的工廠購買,否則台積電從美國工廠獲得的利潤將較低,”謝說。“他們需要鳳凰城的唯 一目的就是確保美國政府不會對他們不利。” 2023 年,台積電超過 65% 的收入來自美 國的客戶。魏執行長在 4 月的盈利電話會議上表示,客戶需要承擔在台灣以外生產的高 成本。 That same month, following years of negotiations, the U.S. government announced plans to award TSMC $6.6 billion in grants and about $5 billion in loans, with TSMC agreeing to construct a third factory on its Phoenix site that will start operating by the end of the decade. (Meanwhile, Intel was awarded $8.5 billion in grants in March, and Samsung was provided $6.4 billion in direct funding in April.) Despite the flood of investments, the U.S. has a long way to go before chip self-reliance, experts told Rest of World. TSMC Arizona’s first two facilities are expected to make 600,000 wafers a year — a fraction of the company’s current annual capacity of 16 million wafers. Many of the chips made in the U.S. still need to be shipped back to Asia for assembly, testing, and packaging. Chip packaging company Amkor, which has most of its factories in Asia, will build a plant in Arizona to package Apple chips made at TSMC. The U.S. needs to offer timely, consistent support to companies like TSMC in order to create the kind of chip ecosystem that took Taiwan three decades to build, according to Jason Hsu, a former legislator in Taiwan and now a research fellow at Harvard Kennedy School with a focus on semiconductors and geopolitics. It would be easier to leave the job to its Asian allies. “You don’t need to raise a cow to have the milk,” Hsu said. “You just have to make sure that the milk can be delivered to your doorstep.” 同一個月,在多年的談判之後,美國政府宣布計劃向台積電提供約 66 億美元的補助和約 50 億美元的貸款,台積電同意在鳳凰城的工廠基地建造第三個工廠,該工廠將在本十年 末開始運營。(與此同時,英特爾於三月獲得了 85 億美元的補助,三星則於四月獲得了 64 億美元的直接資金。) 儘管投資大幅增加,但專家告訴《Rest of World》,美國在芯片自給自足方面還有很長 的路要走。台積電亞利桑那州的前兩個工廠預計每年生產 60 萬片晶圓,僅占公司目前年 產 1600 萬片晶圓的一小部分。美國生產的許多晶片仍然需要運送回亞洲進行組裝、測試 和封裝。晶片封裝公司Amkor因位於亞洲的大多數工廠將在亞利桑那州建造一個工廠,將在 該工廠封裝在台積電生產的蘋果晶片。 哈佛大學肯尼迪學院研究員、台灣前立法者Jason Hsu表示,美國需及時、持續地支持像 台積電這樣的公司,以建立起台灣用了三十年時間才建立的晶片生態系統。將這項工作交 給其亞洲盟友將更容易。“你不需要養牛才能得到牛奶,”許說。“你只需要確保牛奶可 以送到你家門口。” On February 24, 2024, TSMC inaugurated its newest factory, located in Kumamoto , Japan, where construction had begun about a year later than in Arizona. At the ribbon-cutting ceremony, guests were served Taiwan’s signature pineapple cakes and greeted by the beloved bear mascot Kumamon. Thanks to strong government support, local partnerships, and a low-cost labor force that worked 24/7, the factory had been completed at dazzling speed. “We committed to getting it ready in two years because that’s what TSMC asked us,” Kumamoto Governor Ikuo Kabashima told Bloomberg. Chang hailed the factory as the start of “a renaissance of semiconductor manufacturing” in Japan. Although the factory in Japan will make less-advanced chips than the American one, the news out of Kumamoto prompted feelings of envy in Phoenix. There, engineers felt that they were falling even further behind. The same weekend as the opening of the Japanese plant, Taiwanese engineers discussed the struggle of working with Americans at a gathering in Phoenix. “ The Japan factory opened first. I’m very frustrated,” a Taiwanese engineer said. 在2024年2月24日,台積電在日本熊本縣正式啟用了位於熊本市的最新工廠,該工廠的建 設比亞利桑那州的工廠晚了大約一年左右開始。 在剪綵儀式上,來賓們享用了台灣標誌性的鳳梨酥,並受到了深受喜愛的熊本吉祥物熊本 熊的歡迎。由於政府的大力支持、當地的合作夥伴關係,以及一支全天候工作的低成本勞 動力,該工廠以令人驚歎的速度完成。 熊本縣知事蒲島郁夫告訴彭博社:“我們承諾在兩年內準備好,因為這是台積電要求的。 ” 張忠謀將這家工廠稱為日本半導體製造業“復興”的開端。 儘管日本工廠生產的晶片比美國的工廠落後,但熊本的消息引起了鳳凰城的嫉妒情緒。在 那裡,工程師們感到自己正在進一步落後。 就在日本工廠開幕的同一周末,台灣工程師在鳳凰城的一次聚會上討論了與美國人合作的 困難。“日本工廠首先開幕了。我感到非常沮喪,”一位台灣工程師說。 Sitting in a room together, the engineers admitted that although they had made some progress in acclimating to life in the U.S., TSMC had yet to find a balance between the two work cultures. Some Taiwanese workers complained that management was being too accommodating in giving Americans less work, paying them high salaries, and letting them get off work early. Another engineer said the company babied Americans. “If local hires are not ready, this is our opportunity to apply for a green card,” he joked. Another engineer said he sometimes shared the Americans’ frustration with the hierarchy, discipline, and long hours. But these things, he believed, had enabled TSMC to surpass its competitors to become the chip leader. “Everything comes from working hard. Without this culture, TSMC cannot be number one in the world,” he said with passion. “I want to support TSMC to be great. It’s my religion.” 坐在一起的工程師們坦承,儘管他們在適應美國生活方面已經取得了一些進展,但台積電 尚未找到兩種工作文化之間的平衡。一些台灣工人抱怨管理層過於迎合美國人,給他們減 少工作量,支付高薪水,讓他們提早下班。 另位工程師說公司嬌慣了美國人。“如果當地雇傭不夠合格,這是我們申請綠卡的機會” 他開玩笑說。 另一位工程師說他有時會和美國人一樣對階級制度、紀律和長時間工作感到沮喪。但他相 信,這些事情使得台積電能夠超越競爭對手成為晶片行業的領導者“一切都來自於努力工作。沒有這種文化,台積電就無法成為世界第一,”他充滿激情地 說道。“我想支持台積電變得更偉大。這是我的信仰。” Source:https://reurl.cc/QR6eMo -- 若有需要修正的地方再告知,感謝。 -- ※ 發信站: 批踢踢實業坊(ptt.cc), 來自: (臺灣) ※ 文章網址: https://www.ptt.cc/bbs/Stock/M.1713970935.A.4D7.html

Re: 回文串

> [情報] Rest of World-TSMC在美國沙漠中的困境
Stock04/24 23:02

445 則留言

baka1412, 1F

baka1412, 2F
[情報] Rest of World-TSMC在美國沙漠中的困境

cchh179, 3F

cuteSquirrel, 4F

w60904max, 5F
台積電強大的秘密被發現了 tsm跌爛

Transposon, 6F

laptic, 7F

laptic, 8F
網址已補,分類容我確認一下 看了板規 1-10-1 ,確認已有中文媒體取片段報導 故我先維持原分類,若板主認為須改編譯再告知。

islandant, 9F

islandant, 10F

islandant, 11F

wake7078, 12F

autoexecbat, 13F

jack0216, 14F
還要擴廠 真他媽笑死 最大利空=美國人好吃懶做

newyee, 15F

lolic, 16F
黃皮膚去美國徵用白皮膚奴隸 祖先知道都笑了

wcs516, 17F

GX90160SS, 18F
xd 有夠真實

TCPai, 19F

ppav0v0v, 20F
不奴 哪來的台積電

shinyi444, 21F
主力殺G劇本開演 台灣黑手加油>_<

payneblue, 22F
美國白人高階人才喜歡WLB 台積電倒不如吸收那些 墨

payneblue, 23F
西哥 或其他國家的高階移民比較實在

1865年北美鐵路華工 然後還有排華法案 202x年 晶片

法案 又是打壓 不要笑死人 用錢來買肝買晶片

mared, 26F

herculus6502, 27F
現在做空要聯合外媒了 真是愈來愈精彩

nakayamayyt, 28F
張董早就講過台GG成功的關鍵 美國人都沒在聽

jatj, 29F

aegis43210, 30F

aegis43210, 31F

aegis43210, 32F

revorea, 33F

revorea, 34F

IQIQ200, 35F

aegis43210, 36F

aegis43210, 37F

payneblue, 38F
AI工程師是未來 不會抱怨 24hr

imba789, 39F

wonlylove, 436F

wonlylove, 437F

wonlylove, 438F

wonlylove, 439F

wonlylove, 440F

wonlylove, 441F

wonlylove, 442F

wonlylove, 443F

wonlylove, 444F

JKjohnwick, 445F

JKjohnwick, 446F

wcre, 447F